Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels in Coronavirus Disease Survivors

  • Puja Asmaul Husna Universitas Hasanuddin
  • Riskah Nur’amalia Universitas Hasanuddin
  • Meutia Mutmainnah Universitas Hasanuddin
Keywords: cardiorespiratory, fitness, survivors


Introduction: Covid-19 survivors often complain of fatigue, cough, shortness of breath, fever, dermatitis, headache and so on. This decrease then has an impact on changes in cardiorespiratory fitness. Objective: Determine the level of cardiorespiratory fitness in Covid-19 survivors. Method: This study used a cross sectional design. The population of this study is Covid-19 survivors in Makassar City. Sampling using purposive sampling technique with a sample of 385 people. Data collection was carried out by taking primary data through measuring cardiorespiratory fitness levels using the Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Results: A total of 236 people (61.3%) Covid-19 survivors had a low level of cardiorespiratory fitness with an average distance value of 507.6 meters. Conclusion: Respondents who come from the adolescent age group, have a normal BMI, high activity, asymptomatic and mild symptoms, and a phase of chronic Covid-19 infection tend to have a good level of cardiorespiratory fitness. While most respondents from the elderly age group, have obese and obese BMI, work as medical personnel with low physical activity, accompanied by comorbidities and the acute Covid-19 infection phase have a low level of cardiorespiratory fitness.


Download data is not yet available.


World Health Organization, “Coronavirus (COVID-19),” 2022. .

A. Du Toit, “Outbreak of a novel coronavirus,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 123–123, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.1038/s41579-020-0332-0.

K. P. Patel et al., “Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: an update of current literature,” Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 2005–2011, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1007/s10096-020-03961-1.

Pusat Krisis Kementerian Kesehatan RI, “Pemantauan Kasus Covid-19 Indonesia,” 2022. .

Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana RI, “Situasi COVID-19 Indonesia,” Hub InaCOVID-19, 2022. .

Gugus Tugas Percepatan Penanganan Covid-19 Republik Indonesia, “Peta Sebaran,” 2022. .

E. Mahase, “Covid-19: What do we know about ‘long covid’?,” BMJ, vol. 370, pp. 9–10, 2020, doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2815.

A. Nalbandian et al., “Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome,” Nat. Med., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 601–615, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1038/s41591-021-01283-z.

Sutrisno et al., Rehabilitasi Medik Pasca Menderita Covid-19. 2021.

P. Clavario et al., “Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in COVID-19 patients at 3 months follow-up,” Int. J. Cardiol., vol. 340, pp. 113–118, Oct. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.07.033.

T. Greenhalgh, M. Knight, C. A’Court, M. Buxton, and L. Husain, “Management of post-acute covid-19 in primary care,” BMJ, p. m3026, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1136/bmj.m3026.

E. L. Fosbøl et al., “Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Use With COVID-19 Diagnosis and Mortality,” JAMA, vol. 324, no. 2, p. 168, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.11301.

Y. Liu, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and L. Nie, “Diagnosis of the Livelihood Sustainability and Its Obstacle Factors for Poverty-Alleviation-Relocation Residents in Tourism Communities: Data from China,” Sustainability, vol. 15, no. 7, p. 6224, May 2023, doi: 10.3390/su15076224.

R. A. G. Christensen, J. Arneja, K. St. Cyr, S. L. Sturrock, and J. D. Brooks, “The association of estimated cardiorespiratory fitness with COVID-19 incidence and mortality: A cohort study,” PLoS One, vol. 16, no. 5, p. e0250508, May 2021, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250508.

I. Ahmed, “COVID-19 – does exercise prescription and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) have a role in risk-stratifying patients?,” Clin. Med. (Northfield. Il)., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 282–284, May 2020, doi: 10.7861/clinmed.2020-0111.

I. G. Dewi and C. E. Wuryaningsih, “Aktivitas Fisik Masyarakat Urban di Jakarta Selatan,” Hasanuddin J. Midwifery, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 23, Apr. 2019, doi: 10.35317/hajom.v1i1.1790.

J. F.-W. Chan et al., “A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster,” Lancet, vol. 395, no. 10223, pp. 514–523, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9.

G. Raghuveer et al., “Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth: An Important Marker of Health: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 142, no. 7, pp. 101–118, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000866.

Bara Crystina L. B. P et al., “Changes in the Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Men and Women in Various Age Groups,” J. Exerc. Physiol. Online, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2019, [Online]. Available:

D. Reddy Ramadas, “Karakteristik Kekuatan Otot, Kelenturan Tubuh, Komposisi Tubuh Dan Indeks Massa Tubuh Siswa Smk Negeri 5 Denpasar Tahun Ajaran 2014/2015,” Intisari Sains Medis, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 36–42, Apr. 2016, doi: 10.15562/ism.v5i1.33.

J. H. Wilmore, D. L. Costill, and G. W. Gleim, “Physiology of Sport and Exercise,” Med. Sci. Sport. Exerc., vol. 27, no. 5, p. 792, May 1995, doi: 10.1249/00005768-199505000-00024.

M. H. Al-Mallah et al., “Sex Differences in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and All-Cause Mortality,” Mayo Clin. Proc., vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 755–762, Jun. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.04.002.

T. Takken et al., “Is BMI Associated with Cardiorespiratory Fitness? A Cross-Sectional Analysis Among 8470 Apparently Healthy Subjects Aged 18–94 Years from the Low-Lands Fitness Registry,” J. Sci. Sport Exerc., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 283–289, Aug. 2022, doi: 10.1007/s42978-021-00143-z.

N. Puspitasari, “Kejadian Obesitas Sentral pada Usia Dewasa,” HIGEIA (Journal Public Heal. Res. Dev., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 249–259, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.15294/higeia.v2i2.21112.

I. Riswanti, “Media Buletin dan Seni Mural dalam Upaya Meningkatkan Pengetahuan Tentang Obesitas,” HIGEIA (Journal Public Heal. Res. Dev., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 96–103, 2017.

N. N. A. Febrianti, I. D. P. Sutjana, I. M. K. Dinata, and I. D. A. I. D. Primayanti, “Hubungan Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT)Terhadap Daya Tahan Kardiovaskuler Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana,” J. Med. Udayana, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 15–20, 2021.

E. Ekblom-Bak et al., “Cardiorespiratory fitness and lifestyle on severe COVID-19 risk in 279,455 adults: a case control study,” Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act., vol. 18, no. 1, p. 135, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.1186/s12966-021-01198-5.

H. Pojskic and B. Eslami, “Relationship Between Obesity, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels in Children and Adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of Gender Differences,” Front. Physiol., vol. 9, no. November, pp. 1–11, Nov. 2018, doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.01734.

D. Abadini and C. E. Wuryaningsih, “Determinan Aktivitas Fisik Orang Dewasa Pekerja Kantoran di Jakarta Tahun 2018,” J. Promosi Kesehat. Indones., vol. 14, no. 1, p. 15, Nov. 2018, doi: 10.14710/jpki.14.1.15-28.

H. Setiawan, M. Munawwarah, and E. Wibowo, “Hubungan Aktivitas Fisik dengan Kebugaran dan Tingkat Stres pada Karyawan Back Office Rumah Sakit Omni Alam Sutera dimasa Pandemi Covid-19,” Physiother. Heal. Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–10, Jul. 2021, doi: 10.22219/physiohs.v3i1.16935.

A. S. Ojo, S. A. Balogun, O. T. Williams, and O. S. Ojo, “Pulmonary Fibrosis in COVID-19 Survivors: Predictive Factors and Risk Reduction Strategies,” Pulm. Med., vol. 2020, pp. 1–10, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1155/2020/6175964.

N. Pathak, “What Does COVID-19 Do to Your Lungs?,” WebMD, 2021.

How to Cite
Husna, P., Nur’amalia, R., & Mutmainnah, M. (2023). Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels in Coronavirus Disease Survivors. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Sandi Husada, 12(1), 68-77.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.