Risk Factors of Stunting of Children Under Five in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

  • Qurratu Falmuariat Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta
  • Thresya Febrianti Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta
  • Mustakim Mustakim Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta
Keywords: risk factor, stunting, children under five, developing countries


Introduction; Stunting in toddlers is one of the nutritional problems in the world, especially in developing countries. As many as 21.3% or around 144 million toddlers in the world are stunted, more than half of the world's stunted toddlers are from Asia and more than two-fifths live in Africa. Stunting is a serious threat to the existence of children as the next generation of a nation.

Purpose; This study analyzed the risk factors associated with the incidence of stunting in toddlers in developing countries using systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

Method; Literature search using online journal portals namely ProQuest, PubMed and Garuda. The journal used in this study is a journal with a maximum reputation of Q2 and sinta 2, in the period 2010-2020, with a cross-sectional and cased control study design.

Results; Based on the search results, seven literatures were obtained conducted by systematic literature review.

Conclusion; The results of the meta-analysis of risk factors related to the incidence of stunting in toddlers in developing countries are birth weight and exclusive breastfeeding


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Qurratu Falmuariat, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta

Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

Thresya Febrianti, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta

Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

Mustakim Mustakim, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta

Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat


Aridiyah, F. O., Rohmawati, N., & Ririanty, M. (2015). Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kejadian Stunting pada Anak Balita di Wilayah Pedesaan dan Perkotaan. Pustaka Kesehatan.

Batiro, B., Demissie, T., Halala, Y., & Anjulo, A. A. (2017). Determinants of Stunting among Children Aged 6-59 Months at Kindo Didaye Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia : Unmatched Case Control Study. 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189106

Beal, T., Tumilowicz, A., Sutrisna, A., Izwardy, D., & Neufeld, L. M. (2018). A Review of Child Stunting Determinants in Indonesia. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 14(4), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12617

Berhe, K., Seid, O., Gebremariam, Y., & Almaz, B. (2019). Risk Factors of Stunting (Chronic Undernutrition ) of Children Aged 6 to 24 months in Mekelle City, Tigray Region, North Ethiopia : An Unmatched Case-Control Study. Plos One, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217736

Bogale, B., Gutema, B. T., & Chisha, Y. (2020). Prevalence of Stunting and Its Associated Factors among Children of 6 – 59 Months in Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance Site ( HDSS ), Southern Ethiopia : A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study. 2020.

Hamel, C., Enne, J., Omer, K., Ayara, N., Yarima, Y., Cockcroft, A., & Andersson, N. (2015). Childhood Malnutrition is Associated with Maternal Care during Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bauchi and Cross River states, Nigeria. Journal of Public Health Research, 4(1), 58–64. https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2015.408

Hofmeyr, G. J., Neilson, J. P., Alfirevic, Z., Crowther, C. A., Gülmezoglu, A. M., Hodnett, E. D., Gyte, G. M., & Duley, L. (2008). A Cochrane Pocketbook: Pregnancy and Childbirth. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470994627

Kosim, M. S. (2010). Buku Ajar Neonatologi. Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia.

Lestari, W., Margawati, A., & Rahfiludin, Z. (2014). Faktor Risiko Stunting pada Anak Umur 6-24 Bulan di Kecamatan Penanggalan Kota Subulussalam Provinsi Aceh. Jurnal Gizi Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition), 3(1), 37–45. https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.3.1.126-134

Manary, M., & Solomon, N. . (2009). Gizi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Gizi dan Perkembangan Anak. EGC.

Manuaba, I. A. C., Manuaba, I. B. G. F., & Manuaba, I. B. G. (2013). Gawat Darurat Obsteri Ginekologi dan Obstetri Ginekologi Sosial untuk Profesi Bidan. EGC.

Ni’mah, K., & Nadhiroh, S. R. (2016). Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kejadian Stunting Pada Balita. Media Gizi Indonesia, 10(1), 13–19. https://doi.org/10.20473/MGI.V10I1.13-19

Nshimyiryo, A., Hedt-gauthier, B., Mutaganzwa, C., Kirk, C. M., Beck, K., Ndayisaba, A., Mubiligi, J., Kateera, F., & El-khatib, Z. (2019). Risk Factors for Stunting among Children Under Five Years : a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Rwanda using the 2015 Demographic and Health Survey. 1–11.

Soetjiningsih, I. N. G. R. (2013). Tumbuh Kembang Anak. EGC.

Suprapto, S. (2017). Hubungan Sanitasi Lingkungan Dengan Kejadian Diare Pada Lanjut Usia Di Kelurahan Barombong Kecamatan Tamalate Kota Makassar. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Sandi Husada, 6(2 SE-Articles). https://doi.org/10.35816/jiskh.v6i2.207

Taguri, A. El, Betilmal, I., Mahmud, S. M., Ahmed, A. M., Goulet, O., Galan, P., & Hercberg, S. (2008). Risk Factors for Stunting among Under-fives in Libya. 12(8), 1141–1149. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980008003716

Tim Paket Pelatihan Klinik PONED. (2008). Buku Acuan Pelayanan Obstetri dan Neonatal Emergensi Dasar (PONED). EGC.

Titaley, C. R., Ariawan, I., Hapsari, D., & Muasyaroh, A. (2013). Determinants of the Stunting of Children Under Two Years Old in Indonesia : A Multilevel Analysis of the 2013 Indonesia Basic Health Survey.

Trihono, A., & Tjandrarini, D. H. (2015). Pendek (Stunting) di Indonesia, Masalah dan Solusinya. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.

Tuang, A. (2021). Analisis Analisis Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Kejadian Diare pada Anak. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Sandi Husada, 10(2), 534–542. https://doi.org/10.35816/jiskh.v10i2.643

Unicef, WHO, & Group, W. B. (2020). Levels and Trends in Child Malnutrition. In Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates.

Weisz, A. et al. (2011). The Duration of Diarrhea and Fever is Associated with Growth Faltering in Rural Malawian Children Aged 6-18 Months. Nutr. J., 10, 25.

Welasih, B., & Wirjatmadi, B. (2012). Beberapa Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Status Gizi Balita Stunting. Tanaffos, 11, 12–17.

Wellina, W. F., Kartasurya, M. I., & Rahfilludin, M. Z. (2016). Faktor Risiko Stunting pada Anak Umur 12-24 bulan. 5(1), 55–61.

WHO. (2016). WHO Recommendations on Antenatal Care for A Positive Pregnancy Experience. WHO.

How to Cite
Falmuariat, Q., Febrianti, T., & Mustakim, M. (2022). Risk Factors of Stunting of Children Under Five in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Sandi Husada, 11(2), 304- 315. https://doi.org/10.35816/jiskh.v11i2.758
Book Review

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.